RFID System Frequency Ranges

RFID System Frequency Ranges
There are 4 major frequency ranges that RFID systems operate at. As a rule of thumb, low-frequency systems are distinguished by short reading ranges, slow read speeds, and lower cost. Higher-frequency RFID systems are used where longer read ranges and fast reading speeds are required, such as for vehicle tracking and automated toll collection. Microwave requires the use of active RFID tags.

Frequency Range Tag cost Applications
Low-frequency
125 – 148 KHz
3 feet $1+ Pet and ranch animal identification;
car keylocks
High-frequency
13.56 MHz
3 feet $0.50 library book identification;
clothing identification; smart cards
Ultra-high freq
915 MHz
25 feet $0.50 Supply chain tracking:
Box, pallet, container, trailer tracking
Microwave:
2.45GHz
100 feet $25+ Highway toll collection;
vehicle fleet identification

RFID Tag Products

RFID Tag Products
RFID product labels
Sometimes called smart labels, these sticky labels have UPC barcode information printed on the front, with the RFID chip embedded on the back side of the label. They are found on supermarket shelves to shipping pallets to books.

RFID wristbands
Sometimes called smart bands, these are RFID micro-chips embedded in plastic wristbands to track movement, RFID wristbands are gaining popularity in hospitals, correctional facilities and amusement parks as a way to track a person’s stay.

RFID employee badges
Used for employee access control into a facility. Rather than having to swipe a badge through a magnetic reader, one simply passes by an RFID reader installed on a door.

RFID keychains
These are RID chips embedded into a car key fob and allow one to unlock the door and start the car without removing the keys from your pocket or purse. They contain active RFID tags, and are available in some Toyota and Lexus models.

RFID FAQ

Active tag An RFID tag that contains a battery and a transmitter to send information to an RFID reader, rather than reflecting a signal back to the reader from a tag (as a passive tag does).

RFID reader
An RFID reader that can read tags operating at different frequencies or different communication protocols.

Air interface protocol The standards that govern how RFID tags and readers communicate.

Anti-collision
Anti-collision algorithms are used to collect data from multiple RFID tags at the same time from the same RFID reader without interference.

Auto-ID Center
The original non-profit organization that helped develop RFID system technology. This work is now continued by EPCglobal.

Backscatter
The communication method between a passive RFID tag and a reader. An RF signal sent by a reader is reflected back to the reader from the tag, which is modulated to transmit data.

Beacon
An active or semi-passive RFID tag that is programmed to wake up and broadcast a signal at pre-set intervals.

Commissioning
Writing data to an RFID tag for the first time. Thic can happen at the factory or later using a smart label printer.

Concentrator
A device used to gather data from multiple RFID readers at the same time.

Contactless smart card
A credit card or buyer card that contains an RFID chip to transmit information without having to be swiped through a reader.

EPCglobal
The organization set up to commercialize RFID technology, which has taken over this task from the Auto-ID Center.

Far-field communication
An RFID tag that is located one full wavelength away from an RFID reader.

Inductive coupling
A RFID reader antenna and a tag antenna each have a coil, which together form a magnetic field. The RFID tag draws electrical energy from this field, which powers its microchip. The microchip then changes the electrical characteristics of the tag antenna. These changes are sensed up by the reader antenna and converted into a serial number for the RFID tag.

Inlet
A “blank” RFID tag that is usually part of a smart label. Smart label printers are used to write data to the RFID at the same time printing bar code data on the label. Also called an inlay.

Interrogator
Another name for an RFID reader.

License plate
A simple RFID system that only tracks RFID tag serial numbers and no other information.

Middleware
In the context of an RFID system, refers to software that is used to filter RFID data and pass on useful information to enterprise software applications for further processing.

Near-field communication
An RFID tag that is within a full wavelength of an RFID reader.

Passive tag
An RFID tag without a power source or transmitter. Radio waves from an RFID reader are collected from the RFID tag antenna, which powers up the microchip in the tag. The tag is then able to send back information stored in the chip to the reader.

Phantom read
When a RFID reader reports the presence of a tag that doesn’t exist.

RFID reader
A device used to communicate with RFID tags. The reader has one or more antennas, which emit radio waves and receive signals back from the tag. The reader is also sometimes called an interrogator because it “interrogates” the tag.

RFID tags
A microchip attached to an antenna in a package. An RFID tag contains a unique serial number at a mimimum, but commonly contain other information about a product. RFID tags can be passive, semi-passive or active.

Semi-passive tags
Similar to active RFID tags, but the battery is used only to run the RFID chip – not to broadcast a signal to a reader.

Slap and ship
Placing an RFID tag on a case or pallet just before it is shipped from a supplier. Used to meet a retailer’s requirements.

Smart label
A bar-code label that contains an RFID tag.

Transponder
A radio-frequency transmitter-receiver combo. Another term for a RFID tag.

Write-once read-many (WORM)
A RFID tag that can be written to (changed) only once by a reader. Afterward, the tag can only be read.

Why EMV is More Secure than Chip Card?

Why EMV is More Secure than Chip Card?
Chip card security is the latest standard in credit card security. This standard (called EMV for “EuroPay,” “MasterCard,” and “Visa”) includes a small microchip in the credit card that protects buyers against fraudulent transactions.

Because of the change in credit card security, banks are phasing out magnetic stripe cards in favor of these more secure, authenticated ways to pay. But what exactly is the problem with magnetic stripe cards? And why are chip cards better? Well, a number of reasons.

First off, magnetic-stripe cards are pretty outdated — they’ve been around since the ’60s and use the same technology as cassette tapes. And surprisingly, the United States is one of the last countries to still have them around. EMV has been the standard in most parts of the world for over a decade (you may have noticed that chip cards are the norm when you travel to places like Europe, for example).

Magnetic strips

Magnetic strips
Loco magnetic strips (300OE)
Loco magnetic stripe card is perfect for short-term applications where top level high security and lasting card life are less of an issue. The magnetic stripes on these cards are more of a brownish tone, while HiCo mag stripes are nearly black in color. LoCo cards utilize a lower strength electromagnetic field and are utilized for a range of applications consisting of gift cards, membership and loyalty cards, transit passes, hotel space secrets, amusement park passes, grocery club cards, and much more.

Hico magnetic strips (2750OE)
Hico magnetic stirp card has actually now been completely embraced by the banking market and is likewise utilized in the bulk of access control applications. It must be kept in mind that the greater the coercivity, the more pricey the magnetic tape is. The key distinction is HiCo magstripe card is encoded with a more powerful magnetic field that makes them more ideal for safe and secure applications and for when the cards might be swiped more often.

So what should i chose, Hico or Loco?
The answer is Loco magnetic strip. Magnetic stripe readers are “blind” as to whether a stripe is HiCo or LoCo and are developed to check out both. LoCo magnetic stripe cards are perfect for most applications. 95% of our clients chose loco magstrip card. But if you run a bank, you need hico magstrip card of course.

RFID labels,RFID sticker/library tags

RFID labels,RFID sticker/library tags
RFID label is a kind of adhesive label (sticker) with RFID inlay. It is also called rfid sticker, rfid smart label.The application of RFID label (rfid sticker, rfid smart label) are: Brand protection, logistics management, warehouse management, supply chain management, wholesales, important assets management, vehicle tracking,etc.With the advance of UHF technology , it is become more prosperity in applications in Aviation, healthcare,retail apparel, supply Chain, even in emerging technologies.

Frequency:13.56MHz(HF) or 860MHz-960MHz(UHF)
Chip:(passive RFID chip)
13.56MHz(HF):NXP Mifare1 S50, Mifare1 S70, Desfire Mf3icd40, Mifare Ultralight, Icode 1, Icode Sli, Legic mim256, JWL872, Ti256, Ti2048, inside picopass 2KS
860MHz-960MHz(UHF):U-Code G2XL, U-Code G2XM, Higgs, Impinj Moza3, Impinj Moza2
Working mode:Passive
Protocol:ISO18000-2, ISO14443, ISO15693, ISO18000-6B, ISO18000-6C(EPC GEN2)
Reading distance:5-10cm(LF) , 3-5cm(HF ISO14443), 100cm(HF ISO15693), 100-3000cm(UHF)(depending on antenna geometry and reader function)
Reading Times:>100000 times
Size:Customization
Special Option:full color printing as design, laser UID or serial number/baecode
Packing Details:in roll or individual package

Plastic business cards

Plastic business cards
Business card is a card printed or etched with a person’s name and company information. Plastic business cards works in such a way to introduce yourself. The thickness of a plastic business cards will depend on the type and purpose of the business card. Thickness usually ranges from 15mil to 30mil. 15 mil is thin and flexible and 30mil is more sturdy. Standard credit cards are often printed with 15mil or 30mil thickness.

Cheap business cards
Cheap business cards are made with paper core, combined with 2 layers of plastic sheet, it looks nice when it’s new, but will break apart when get into water or long time use. We recomend you to thorw away cheap business cards and print business cards which is solid.

Solid plastic business cards benefits:
Waterproof as well as hard-wearing
Could be printed in regular, gloss or metallic colours (consisting of gold as well as silver).
Our most cost-effective plastic card for reduced amounts of card in a solitary colour.
Clear (clear) background cards are offered.
Can be published in holographic print.

Print business cards
With the competiveness of todays’ market it is important to stick out from your competitors. Print business cards directly with the plastic card factory you can save up to 50% than local printing store. Cheap business cards but excellent quality and service, that’s what we offer. Our plastic business cards are distinct promotional devices that excels in every way over a standard paper business card

RFID Technology in Schools

RFID Technology Application in Schools
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology uses electromagnetic fields to wirelessly transfer data. This technology involves the use of RFID cards and readers to transmit electronic information. Northstar’s RFID system helps track the movement of children in schools & verifies if students are getting off at the right bus stop. It also helps automate attendance. RFID has brought about great advancement to the security industry and offers an effective method to enhance safety of premises. Most offices have been using RFID technology for a while. Now, schools are also reaping the benefits of this technology.

Benefits of the Northstar’s RFID technology for Schools:
Movement of students inside the school can be tracked if RFID readers are installed in labs, halls, classrooms etc.
RFID student tracking system in buses helps schools track whether a student is getting off at the right stop.
The RFID student tracking system generates a message to the parent’s phone informing them that their child has boarded the bus/reached the school.
RFID in schools can be used to automate attendance and save time as teachers don’t have to take attendance manually.
Northstar RFID Tracking System can also be extended to drivers, wherein, the driver will have to swipe in at the start of the trip and at the end. The driver is asked to check if there is still any child left on the bus while swiping out. This prevents sleeping kids from being trapped in the bus due to a driver’s negligence.
This RFID tracking system can be used to generate attendance reports.
Active RFID tracking system can help easily the movement of several students and is better placed in school entrances to keep track of everyone entering & exiting the school.
RFID cards can also be given to guests entering the school to keep track of their movements while they are on campus.

How Smart Cards Work?

How Smart Cards Work?
A smart card is a plastic card about the size of a credit card, with an embedded microchip that can be loaded with data, used for telephone calling, electronic cash payments, and other applications, and then periodically refreshed for additional use. Currently or soon, you may be able to use a smart card to:

smart card * Dial a connection on a mobile telephone and be charged on a per-call basis
smart card * Establish your identity when logging on to an Internet access provider or to an online bank
smart card * Pay for parking at parking meters or to get on subways, trains, or buses
smart card * Give hospitals or doctors personal data without filling out a form
smart card * Make small purchases at electronic stores on the Web (a kind of cybercash)
smart card * Buy gasoline at a gasoline station

How Smart Cards Work?
A smart card contains more information than a magnetic stripe card and it can be programmed for different applications. Some cards can contain programming and data to support multiple applications and some can be updated to add new applications after they are issued. ,Smart cards can be designed to be inserted into a slot and read by a special reader or to be read at a distance, such as at a toll booth. Cards can be disposable (as at a trade-show) or reloadable (for most applications).

An industry standard interface between programming and PC hardware in a smart card has been defined by the PC/SC Working Group, representing Microsoft, IBM, Bull, Schlumberger, and other interested companies. Another standard is called OpenCard. There are two leading smart card operating systems: JavaCard and MULTOS.

UHF RFID Reader

UHF RFID Reader
Valued as a reliable supplier, trader and wholesaler, we are engaged in offering the optimum quality of UHF Reader. The offered reader is highly demanded for its ability to tolerate harsh weathering condition, compact design and four antenna ports. Rendered by us at cost effective prices, the offered UHF reader is appreciated among our customers for its easy installation.

UHF RFID Reader Features:
3 LED indicators
Easy to install
Up to 5 meters reading range

UHF RFID Reader Other Details:
4 antenna ports
Up to 5 meters reading range
Lightweight
Industrial I/O
Multi-regional flexibility
3 LED indicators
Configurable by proprietary software configuration
Easy to install

UHF RFID Reader Operational Standard:
Connectivity standard: ISO 18000-6C,EPC Class 1 Gen2
Frequency: 840-960 MHz
Output Power: Max 27dBm (0.5W)

UHF RFID Reader Interface format:
RS232: default value at 115200 bps (8,N,1)
available from 4800 – 115200 bps
RS485: default value at 115200 bps (8,N,1)
available from 4800 – 115200 bps
Power input: 7.5VDC- 12VDC.standby 600~650mA@7.5VDC
Minimum current 1A@ 7.5VDC-12VDC
Reading range: Up to 5 meters(tags and antenna dependent)
Dimensions: length 114 mm, width 97mm, height 21mm (terminal included)

UHF RFID Reader Physical characteristics:
Weight: 170 grams (terminal included)
Connectors: SMA for Antenna, 14 pin terminal 3.5mm
UHF860 with SMA ( female body with female inner pin)
UHF806US with SMA (female body with male innper pin)

UHF RFID Reader Temperature:
Operating temp: -10 degree C- 60 degree C
Storage temp : -20 degree C- 70 degree C

UHF RFID Reader Humidity:
Operating: 10% – 90% non-condensing
Storage: Up to 90% non-consdensing