RFID standards bodies

RFID standards bodies
There are two main international RFID standards bodies or standardisation bodies:

*ISO – International Standards Organisation
* EPCglobal – Electronics Product Code Global Incorporated

Although these two organisations provide the main RFID standards organisations, there is also a plethora of other standards that apply to niche areas of RFID.

In terms of the standardisation organisations ISO is the longest established. In 1996 it set up a joint committee with IEC to look at standardisation for RFID technology.

The ISO RFID standards fall into a number of categories according to the aspect of RFID that they are addressing. These include: air interface and associated protocols; data content and the formatting; conformance testing; applications; and various other smaller areas.

In addition to the ISO RFID standards, there are also the standards from EPC Global. In 1999 a number of industrial companies with MIT set an consortium known as the Auto-ID consortium with the aim of researching and standardising RFID technology.

In 2003 this organisation was split with the majority of the standardisation activities coming under a new entity called EPCglobal. The Auto-ID Center retained its activities associated with the research into RFID technologies.

ISO 18000 series RFID standards

ISO 18000 series RFID standards

The ISO 18000 series standards is a series of standards that define the air interface for the different RFID frequencies in use around the globe. There is a total of seven standards withn the ISO 18000 series as outlined in the table below:

ISO 18000-V1 Generic parameters for air interfaces for globally accepted frequencies
ISO 18000-V2 Air interface for 135 KHz
ISO 18000-V3 Air interface for 13.56 MHz
ISO 18000-V4 Air interface for 2.45 GHz
ISO 18000-V5 Air interface for 5.8 GHz
ISO 18000-V6 Air interface for 860 MHz to 930 MHz
ISO 18000-V7 Air interface at 433.92 MHz

RFID standards are now widespread in their use, and although EPCglobal and ISO are separate organisations, there are efforts to move towards a single RFID standards scenario, rather than having two sets of competing RFID standards.

SLE5528 Chip

SLE5528 Chip
The SLE5528 is a standard, low-cost EEPROM memory smartcard with 1Kbyte storage space. I t is a protected smart card that consists of 1,024 bytes of EEPROM memory. After eight successive incorrect entries the error counter will block any subsequent attempt at PSC verification and hence any possibility to write and erase. It is no doubt that gives a sense of secure for the users.

Reading of the whole memory is always possible, and the memory can be written and erased byte by byte. The SLE5528 memory card is ISO7816 compatible, with slim card sizes (around 86 x 54 x 0.76 mm) that offer users a sense of convenience. The card is always ready for offset printing and silkscreen printing, with the data retention is up to 10 years long.

The typical applications for the memory card includes access control, staff attendance, transport payment, personal identification etc.

SLE5528 Chip Features
Contact interface
1024 x 8-bit EEPROM organization of Data Memory
024 x 1-bit Protection Memory
Byte-wise write protection of Data Memory
Not alterable Manufacturer Code for unique identification of application
Data Memory alterable only after verification of 2 Byte Programmable Security Code (PSC)
Advanced CMOS-technology optimised for security layout
SLE 5528 is 100% functional compatible to SLE 4428
ID-1(Full Size)
Material: PVC
No printing

SLE5528 Chip Applications
Access Control
e-Purse & Loyalty

Mifare Desfire EV1 4K

Mifare Desfire EV1 4K
The MIFARE DESFire is designed for multi-application, such as public transportation, physical access control and e-government programs. By delivering the perfect balance of cost efficiency, speed, and card performance, MIFARE DESFire’s open concept allows future tailored integration of varied ticketing forms such as Keyfobs, Combiwatch, smart paper tickets and mobile phones with Near Field Communication technology.

The MIFARE DESFire is a special release of NXP SmartMX platform. Featuring an on-chip backup management system and the triple Des authentication, a MIFARE DESFire card can store and hold up to 28 different applications and 16 files per application.

Mifare DESFire 4K operates at a distance of up to 100mm and in accordance with the international standard ISO14443A perfectly meets mid-end transportation segment needs, including security and cost effectiveness. It features a 4Kbyte non-volatile memory, a high speed triple-DES data encryption co-processor, a flexible memory organization structure, a mutual 3-pass authentication technique, a true random number generator, and an anti-tear mechanism to guarantee data integrity during contactless transactions.

Mifare Desfire EV1 4K Features
Contactless interface
Operating distance: Up to 100 mm
Operating frequency: 13.56MHz
Fast data transfer
High data integrity
Uses ISO 14443-4 transport protocol
Material: PVC
No printing

Mifare Desfire EV1 4K Applications
Access Control
e-Purse & Loyalty

RFID tag storage and processing

RFID tag storage and processing
One important area and function of the RFID tag is the area that handles the information storage and processing. RFID tags range vastly in their capabilities as some do not have their own power, relying on the received signals to provide any power and this limits their abilities. Other RFID tags with their own battery power are able to carry out far more sophisticated tasks.

There are several types of RFID tag that may be used:
One-bit EAS RFID tags:EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) tags are commonly found in shops and stores to prevent theft. EAS tags are often termed “1 bit” tags. The reason for this is simply that they are only designed to communicate one bit of information, i.e. their presence. They are widely used in anti-theft measures in shops and stores. If the RFID tag is present and active, then it means that the item has not been through the checkout. If they have been passed through the checkout the RFID tag is either deactivated or removed.

Because of their use, EAS tags are used in their millions and possibly the most widely used form of RFID tag. They do not have any memory or other chips as these would make them too expensive. Coupling used for these tags is generally inductive or backscatter. The tags simply consist of a resonant circuit, and the reader is able to detect their presence. A further point to note about EAS tags is that the readers have to sweep across a small frequency band, because the manufacturing tolerances of these RFID tags is such that there is a spread in the resonant frequencies of the different tags.

RFID smart labels:Smart labels are simple RFID tags that are embedded in a an adhesive paper label. The advantage of this form of tag is that they can be used by RFID and barcode readers as well as having the option for human readable characters. They can be used in areas where the end product may enter one of a number of scenarios where the form of reader is not known – for example retail outlets a product may be shipped to may have either a barcode reader or an RFID reader, and outlets will have different options. Therefore to cover all eventualities a combined RFID and barcode tag is printed.

SAW RFID tag:SAW – Surface Acoustic Wave tags form a half way house between the very basic 1-bit RFID tags and the more advanced tags that are available. The SAW RFID tags operate in the microwave region using backscatter techniques, and although they do not have a processor, they can be encoded at point of manufacture with a number. This number is limited by the technology but may be up to 32 or 64 bits.

Smart card tags:Smart card tags are different to smart labels. Advanced smart card tags are used for many applications, and in particular where secure communications is required, for example for transactions involving finance. These cards may have complicated processors on board along with sufficient memory. When using these cards there is a balance to be made between functionality and cost – this needs to be taken at the outset of the design and needs to be carefully balanced.

Although RFID tags may appear to be the more straightforward or simple element within an RFID system, this may not be the case as considerable ingenuity and careful design is required to ensure the RFID tags perform correctly while being capable of being manufactured to a very low cost and within constraints of size, weight, form factor and also reliability. While most RFID tags are very cheap to manufacture, this hides the design behind them.

Read only RFID tags and Read-write RFID tags

Read only RFID tags and Read-write RFID tags
RFID tags may be able to either perform as a read only RFID tag, or they may be a read-write Radio Frequency Identification tag. In view of the cost of manufacturing different types against the quantities made and the differences between the two, most RFID tags today are the read-write variety, and for applications where only a read function is required, the write ability is not used.

Read only radio frequency identification tags are typically programmed either in the factory. Data included will be a unique identifier and other specified data that cannot be changed.

Read-write RFID tags normally contain an area where data cannot be altered – this is often a segregated secure read-only area in the memory. Again this will include a unique identifier, and other data that may be required. The writeable area can then be used to contain data that may be required. For example if the RFID tag is used with a container, it can contain details of the container contents, etc. This area of memory within the RFID tag can be re-written many times.

How to Detect RFID Chips?

How to Detect RFID Chips?
Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are small fingernail-sized microchips that store and transmit personal data to RFID readers. RFID tags or “chips,” are most commonly used as tracking devices inside objects such as credit cards, luggage and even animals. In order to detect RFID chips, you must have a RFID chip reader that can send and receive the signals transmitted by the RFID tags.

RFID chip reader
Obtain an RFID chip reader at a specialized online or local electronic retailer.

Turn on the RFID chip reader and scan the vicinity of the area you believe RFID chips are present. Although each RFID chip reader is different, RFID chips will generally emit a frequency that will cause the chip reader to produce a beeping noise to indicate the presence of RFID chips.

Follow the signal strength with the increase in the series of beeps from the RFID chip reader. If your RFID chip reader has the ability to detect the direction of the frequency, the device will be able to tell you exactly what direction the RFID chip is located.

How RF works?

How RF works
Imagine your mission is to design an anti-shoplifting device using some old radio sets you found in the garage. You could build something a bit like a radar (with a combined radio transmitter and receiver), sit it by the shop doorway, and point it at people passing by. Radio waves would pass out from your transmitter, bounce off people walking past, and then reflect back to your radio receiver. The trouble is, this wouldn’t actually tell you anything useful, because everyone would reflect the radio waves in exactly the same way! You wouldn’t know whether people were shoplifting or not, because there would be no way to distinguish shoplifters from ordinary customers or people who hadn’t bought anything at all. What you’d really need would be for shoplifters to reflect radio waves in a different way to everyone else. But how?

Anti-shoplifting devices have cracked this problem. As well as having a transmitter and receiver at the doorway, every item in the store contains a concealed RF “tag”. In bookstores and libraries, you’ll find very discreet “soft tags,” stuck to one of the inside pages. In record stores, the plastic shrink-wrap may have an RF tag stuck onto it, or CDs may be locked into large plastic cases with RF tags built into them, which can be removed only be a special tool at the checkout. In clothes stores, there is typically a “hard tag” (a chunky, round, white plastic tag) bolted onto each item with a sharp metal spike (sometimes the tag has ink inside it so it spills all over you and spoils the item you’re trying to steal if you attempt to remove it). Some of these tags are cleverly concealed so you can’t spot them. Others are deliberately very obvious and easy to see—so they deter you from stealing. The gates on the doorway (and the frequent alarms) are another very visible deterrent to shoplifters.

If you walk through the doorway without paying for something, the radio waves from the transmitter (hidden in on one of the door gates) are picked up by the coiled metal antenna in the label. This generates a tiny electrical current that makes the label transmit a new radio signal of its own at a very specific frequency. The receiver (hidden in the other door gate) picks up the radio signal that the tag transmits and sounds the alarm. Why doesn’t the alarm sound when you pay for something? You may have noticed that the checkout assistant passes your item over or through a deactivating device (sometimes it’s incorporated into the ordinary barcode scanning mechanism, and sometimes it’s completely separate). This destroys or deactivates the electronic components in the RF label so they no longer pick up or transmit a signal when you walk through the gates—and the alarm does not sound.

NFC Technology Applications in Commerce

NFC Technology Applications in Commerce
The first list of NFC technology applications is in commerce. This application is boosted with the rising popularity of contactless payment system. In Android 4.4 above for example, Google has introduced a system called Host Card Emulation.

This is a platform that supports secure transaction through NFC network. It can be used for loyalty programs, payments, transit passes, card access, and other kinds of service.

Then in 2014, the competitor, Apple, also introduced a similar platform called Apple Pay. Apple claims that this platform is more secure with stronger data encryption.

NFC Technology Applications

NFC Technology Applications
One of the attractions of NFC technology is on the “tap-and-go” function. Many people think that this function is really easy, practical, and functional. That’s why it can be applied in many fields such as logistic, commerce, store, and many more. Well, the operation is simple though.

After you shop in a certain store for example, you can pay your belonging with only tapping your NFC-featured mobile phone to the NFC reader on the cashier. And then the electronic payment will be automatically transferred. More than that, NFC technology is also applied in many other forms of application. So, with such high functionality, Near Field Communication has wide areas of applications as stated below.