RFID Application in Vehicle Management System

With the evident advantages of RFID passive long-distance readers occurred in the Vehicle access management system and China’s rapid economic development, how to realize the efficient and quality intelligent management on the vehicles going in or out of the jurisdiction has been gradually emphasized by all levels of the administrative departments and enterprises.
Currently the major problems with the vehicle management include: cumbersome registration procedures, low efficiency, small circulation, strong manual labor intensity for the human verifications, poor service effect, complicated vehicle management system and functions, poor targeting, which result in a large system for a small place, more investment whereas poorer result.

According to the real situation and requirements in the application of the vehicle management, based on the UHF RFID technology, the Vehicle RFID Management Information System has been widely used.

The system can automatically identify the vehicle ID, display the information, confirm the ID then release the vehicle. And it combined with the modules such as the user management, vehicle access control, data search, etc., effectively solved the vehicle management problems that the users are facing, no need of stop and rapid access for the internal vehicles, the external vehicles access can be limited effectively.

The system is suitable for the places with large flow of the vehicles, clear destination for the vehicles, closed environment with security guard, especially the large communities, corporate campuses, government units,
group fixed parking lots, etc.

System Characteristics:
1. Realization of the fast flowing of vehicles
2. Improvement of service quality
3. High adaptability and security
4. Practical and functional, easy for operations, cost reduced.
5. Automatic barrier, easy access.

RFID application in Anti-Counterfeiting and Monitoring Management System

Counterfeit products will not only have negative influence on the social economy, but also do great harm to the majority of the enterprises and legitimate rights and interests of the consumers. To protect the interest of enterprises and the consumers from being ruined and ensure the healthy development of the economy, the state and most enterprises have spent plenty of manpower and financial resources on the anti-counterfeiting. The application of the RFID technology in the field of anti-counterfeiting logistics supervision, will be the best way to enhance the efficiency.

To build up the anti-counterfeiting logistics supervision Scheme can help optimize the allocation of the enterprise resources to the maximum, enhance the managing level and economic efficiency effectively, so that the interest of the enterprises and consumers can be ensured. For the traditional anti-counterfeiting logistics schemes, there’re problems such as the information isn’t real-time and has limitations, there’s certain risk of leaks or missing, the anti-counterfeiting logistics supervision scheme to cover the whole processes of dynamic digitalization can never be established.

Since there’s only one ID code stored inside the RFID tag, basing on the online data acquisition devices, readers, RFID printer technology, various functions such as storage management, logistics management, sales supervision and anti-counterfeiting etc. can be realized. According to the data encryption algorithm principle, RRID technology can realize the encryption algorithm processing on the product code, batch code, expiration date and other variables, thus the digitalized supervision codes can be produced, which establishes the fundamental database for the application of anti-counterfeiting and logistics management. Write the digitalized supervision code into the RFID chip via the encryption program, and store the code with the ID number included into the central database through network technology. The digitalized supervision code and RFID reading technology can be connected with a variety of information to realize the digital information sharing at different links of the enterprise management, therefore, the complete anti-counterfeiting logistics digital supervision scheme can be established among the manufacturers, logistics companies and clients. China will be the world’s factory, so the application of the anti-counterfeiting logistics supervision will surely provide the most potential and promising markets for the RFID industries.

Characteristics of the System:
1. Broader service objects, richer service content.
2. Realized the organic combination of the static and dynamic information, provided more anti-counterfeiting logistics and digitalized supervision functions for the relevant enterprises, logistics companies, distributors, consumers and even the government supervision departments.
3. Strong scalability and compatibility, easy connection with the corporate ERP system, realized the data information interaction and sharing, providing evidence for the corporate decisions.

UHF tags application in Parking Management

UHF RFID Tags assist in Automatic Vehicle Identification and Vehicle Tracking. Commercial vehicles as well as personal vehicles need to be identified and tracked for secure access to gated and controlled parking areas.

RFID enabled Windshield Tags are placed on the windscreen of the vehicles which can be read when the vehicle passes through a RFID enabled gantry or parking lot gate. RFID technology allows for easy and fast communication between tag and reader. This helps in allowing access to a vehicle to a secure gated parking lot, automates billing and electronic collection of parking fees, and eliminates scope of misplacing parking tokens/tickets.

OPP IOT Windshield tags are tamper-proof which eliminates scope of theft of these tags. Any attempt to transfer or shift the tag from one vehicle to another vehicle causes the tag to lose its functionality and this helps in accurate automatic vehicle identification.

RFID Asset Tracking

RFID Asset Tracking

Assets in most all shapes and sizes can be tracked with RFID. Below are a few industries currently using RFID systems to successfully track valuable assets of all types, such as pallets, tools, and weapons.

1. Law Enforcement
Law enforcement personnel face a few problems regarding assets. On a daily basis, law enforcement teams interact with a wide array of assets like firearms, vehicles, IT equipment, evidence, and more. If their weapons, computers, or vehicles are misplaced or stolen, it could cost the agency thousands of dollars. If key evidence is lost, a criminal could walk free, or major lawsuits could be filed against that precinct. Loss or theft of assets can result in large fines and/or lawsuits, and the officer responsible could lose his or her job.

In Val Verde County, the sheriff’s office is working with RFID experts to create an asset tracking solution to monitor officers’ equipment in order to prevent theft or criminal activity. Using passive RFID in conjunction with real-time data-collection systems will help to ensure safety and protection of an officer’s vehicle and equipment at all times.
Currently, the program remains in the pilot stage, but if it provides visibility into the movements of equipment, the program could potentially be implemented in other law enforcement precincts and set a standard for RFID asset tracking.

2. Manufacturing
In manufacturing, lost assets can cause major issues such as stalled work, lost sales, and wasted company money. Manufacturing companies track a variety of assets, some as small as work-related tools, to large assets like shipments of car parts. The ramifications of shipments arriving behind schedule, whether the cause be a delay in parts or loss of the assets entirely, can cost companies their reputation and clientele.

Japan Pallet Rental Corporation is using RFID to build a company that revolves around solving other companies’ asset management problems. They manufacture and rent reusable pallets in order to provide a cost-saving solution to other manufacturers who potentially lose up to 30% of their pallet stock per year. Pallets are an important part of most manufacturers’ inventory because they help reduce most of the work involved in loading and unloading goods. Pallets are not cheap, and the loss of 30% of pallet stock on average per year is the direct loss of company money.

By adhering extremely rugged, orientation insensitive wet inlays on these plastic pallets, the company is able to track them among their pallet pool system between the various regions. These custom RFID tags enable the company to rent and successfully recover their reusable pallets without wasting employee time searching for them.

Read more about how Manufacturing companies are using RFID.

3. Education
One of the most talked about industries using RFID for asset tracking is education. From tracking elementary school children to college students, RFID has been in the news in the education industry since 2005, but what RFID is tracking now shows the strides this technology has made in the past 10 years.

RFID is being used to make schools safer for children and teachers around the nation. In a Nebraska school, RFID ensures students arrive at school safely while riding their bikes in the Ride-Your-Bike-to-School program. Solar powered RFID readers at the school read the RFID tags on each students’ backpack, and that information is uploaded to the internet for parents, students, and school administrators to view.

Other school systems are tracking books (both loaned and school library books), IT equipment, and other school property enabling them to protect themselves from theft and loss. Attendance tracking is also currently deployed in colleges which will ultimately reduce time to take roll, as well as encourage student attendance.

Read more about how the education industry is using RFID.

4. Business Environments
All types of businesses are able to use RFID asset tracking to solve inherent problems that occur in the workplace. Common problems addressed in the business world are inefficiencies in workflow, human error, labor costs, asset loss and theft, and zero visibility into internal assets and inventory. Altogether, RFID asset tracking can improve processes and allow businesses to become a highly effective and efficient functioning business unit.

Hundreds of possible assets are available to track in the business sector ranging from small tools, to IT equipment, reusable containers, and more. RFID can help to eliminate some unnecessary manual processes that slow businesses down and keep them from operating at an optimal level.

5. Healthcare
With thousands of patients, employees, and assets, hospitals and healthcare offices are ideal locations to implement RFID asset tracking systems. Currently, several hospitals across the world have RFID asset tracking systems in place that utilize all types of RFID technologies including active RFID, passive RFID, RTLS, and Wi-Fi systems. Some hospitals use passive RFID to track tools in addition to other reusable assets, also they may track patients with RTLS, active RFID, or Wi-Fi based systems.

The problems hospitals face, such as lost or stolen assets, can leave patients without beds or machines critical for their treatment. Children’s Hospital in Birmingham, Alabama, has started tracking assets with an RTLS system in order to manage their high-value equipment like beds, defibrillators, IV pumps, and more. The tags currently used send out IR (infrared) beacons as well as RF signals as a type of redundancy system in case one or the other is blocked by other equipment.

Using this collaborative system, the hospital is able to track, locate, and provide needed maintenance for high-value equipment with ease. Other hospitals are using the same type of system to track patients as a way to reduce wait times and increase efficiency. RTLS in collaboration with RFID provides a dynamic system which gives real time information that helps to maintain and manage different types of assets.

UHF Standard

UHF RFID has taken off in a big way. Many of us have been saying that RFID is the way of the future and now it is starting to be real. The standard for UHF is ISO/IEC 18000-6 (equivalent to the EPCglobal Gen 2 UHF standard). This standard is one of the air interface standards in the ISO/IEC 18000 series for all of the various frequencies.

ISO/IEC 18000-6 is a very large standard. It is available from ISO for about $306.00 and it contains 470 pages. The standard has information and specifications on four different air interfaces (types A, B, C, and D). Type C is the equivalent of the EPCglobal standard and is now the most prevalent UHF standard.

The latest version of ISO/IEC 18000-6 contains enhancements to the Type C air interface that are not included in the EPCglobal version. These enhancements allow the use of sensors and provide details of battery assisted passive RFID tags.

So with ISO/IEC 18000-6 only having been published in 2010 why am I talking about a new standard?

As I explained above, the standard has grown over the years both in size and in price. This has made it difficult to use and with the new enhancements coming, the decision was taken to split the standard into several parts. The new standard will have five parts as follows:

ISO/IEC 18000 – General information
ISO/IEC 18000-61 – Type A
ISO/IEC 18000-62 – Type B
ISO/IEC 18000-63 – Type C
ISO/IEC 18000-64 – Type D

Type C is the equivalent of the EPCglobal Gen 2 standard and it includes the sensor and battery assist specifications.

The revisions to break the original standard into these parts are currently in progress. The work has just passed the first level of balloting at ISO. This means that early in 2012 the new standards should be approved and we will all be using a new number for the UHF standard.

If you want to know more about the new enhancements to the standard then watch for another article on this subject.

If you have questions about the new standards or how you can be a part of the standards efforts then let me know.

HOW DOES A UHF RFID SYSTEM WORK?

HOW DOES A UHF RFID SYSTEM WORK?

The RFID reader emits radio waves of specific frequencies through RFID antennas. The waves “give energy” to the tags so that they can communicate by emitting a unique ID. They do not need batteries and can be used for many years. The reader processes the data so that we can integrate them into our application and give them meaning. The typical reading range is 0-12 meters. Gen2 UHF RFID systems consist of: readers, antennas, printers, and RFID tags or tags. In this article I will define with a brief explanation each of the main elements when implementing an RFID project.

RFID ANTENNAS
RFID Antennas are responsible for emitting and receiving waves that allow us to detect RFID chips. When an RFID chip crosses the antenna field, it is activated and emits a signal. The antennas create different wave fields and cover different distances.

Antenna Type: Circular polarization antennas work best in environments where the orientation of the tag varies. Linear polarization antennas are used when the orientation of the tags is known and controlled and is always the same. NF (Near Field) antennas are used to read RFID tags within a few centimeters.

Overcast angle and gain: Using antennas with gains of between 8.5-10 dbi or more, will allow us to emit more power and obtain a higher reading ratio. The angle of opening depends on the area to be covered, for example: 70 °, 100 °, etc. The more overture the antennas have, the less detection distance.

Number of Antennas: Standard high-performance readers have 2 ports, 4 ports or 8 ports. The number of antennas is usually chosen according to the reading space we want to detect or the density of tags to read. Typically used is 2 or 4 port fixed readers. Some brands have multiplexers that allow us to connect up to 32 antennas in the same reader.

RFID READERS
There are multiple types of readers; Fixed RFID, portable rfid readers, rfid readers for Smartphone and USB readers. To read a high density of tags or requirements of 100% accuracy in detection, the best fixed RFID readers are: ThingMagic FU-M6-E,30dBm,Impinj R420, ThingMagic M6e, Zebra FX9500. And if we need to use portable readers, we recommend the Zebra MC9190, Impinj AB700 Zebra RFD8500. To choose the right reader, we have to take into account several factors:
Reading area: Fixed readers serve mainly to cover a specific area: one point by a doorway, a machine, on a conveyor belt, in a crate, etc. Mobile readers allow us to read while we move and to perform inventories or search for RFID tags that we do not see.

Ratio of reading: the emission power and reading capacity requirements are determined by the number of tags to detect in a specific time. The most complex applications are those where there is a high density of tags, liquids or metal products. The maximum reading power is marked by the regulation allowed in each country or zone according to the type of frequency (ETSI, FCC).

The type of rfid reader: many times the question is whether to use a fixed reader or a portable reader. This factor depends on the application. For example, if we are in a store or warehouse where we need to make inventories and movements, it is convenient to use a portable terminal. If the reading area is fixed, it is convenient to install a reader that covers the area and leave the task automated. For example to detect pallets or products in shipping areas.

USB Readers: These readers give excellent results when we need to record or read very few tags at different points during the manufacturing processes or for validation of documents in offices. Two clear examples are the Nordic Stix and the ThingMagic USB Reader.

RFID LABELS AND TAGS
The essential factors are: size, orientation, reading angle, area the are located and the type of chip.

Size: the size of the chip is a very important factor, for the simple reason that the more antenna the RFID tag, has the better the sensitivity and the detection. Whether the response of the tag is always the same or very similar every time it is detected, we are able to then develop reliable and robust applications. The antennas are usually made of aluminum or copper.

Orientation and reading angle: If we have circular antennas we do not have to worry about much about orientation. The orientation of the tag is worrisome when we try to detect them with linear antennas. In this case, we must test if the best position of the tag is vertical or horizontal, as is the case when using the ShortDipole tag. There are omni directional antennas with two dipoles, such as FROG 3D and WEB, that allow us to detect the tags regardless of their orientation. The reading range of these is usually lower by the composition of the antenna.

Integrate Circuit (IC): These are the internal chips of the RFID tag. The most common are the Impinj Monza, NXP, and Higgs. There are IC’s with more or less memory, from 96 bits to 512 bits. They have additional memories, EAS alarm system, ability to lock with passwords, etc. There are also IC’s that combine both RFID / NFC technologies on the same chip. When more memory is required we can put it in an external database and associate an ID that identifies the chip.

Location area: it is very important to take into account where the applied tag will go so that the rfid solution is successful and meets the necessary reading ranges. Keep in mind that metal bounces the RF waves and that water absorbs them. There are solutions for metal labels that allow us to place the tags on the metal and detect them correctly. The material and adhesive to be used are determined by environmental factors such as indoor or outdoor, high temperatures, as is the case in pharmaceuticals tracking or food tracking as well as other special applications.

Price tag RFID: If the application requires a large volume of tags, this will surely be the most important factor to determine pricing and measure return on investment.

ENCODING RFID
Many times we wonder how we can encode the information inside the tags. With rfid printers such as Zebra printers ZT410 0 R110xi, we can encode the chip and print any bar code or number. We can also encode tags with USB readers, fixed readers or portable readers. But where do we encode the information? Usually when reading the tags, it is the EPC or TID that is read. TIDs are not modifiable and are composed of a unique number that comes from the factory. The EPC space of the tag is what is recorded, modified and with which we normally interact. The tags have an internal memory (User memory) where we can save additional information.

At OPP IOT we can help you find the solution you need. You can view our products and contact us on the OPP IOT website or call us at (0086)594 2790031

Do all countries use the same frequencies?

Do all countries use the same frequencies?No.

Different countries have allotted different parts of the radio spectrum for RFID, so no single technology optimally satisfies all the requirements of existing and potential markets.

The industry has worked diligently to standardize three main RF bands: low frequency (LF), 125 to 134 kHz; high frequency (HF), 13.56 MHz; and ultrahigh frequency (UHF), 860 to 960 MHz. Most countries have assigned the 125 or 134 kHz areas of the spectrum for low-frequency systems, and 13.56 MHz is used around the world for high-frequency systems (with a few exceptions), but UHF systems have only been around since the mid-1990s, and countries have not agreed on a single area of the UHF spectrum for RFID. UHF bandwidth across the European Union ranges from 865 to 868 MHz, with interrogators able to transmit at maximum power (2 watts ERP) at the center of that bandwidth (865.6 to 867.6 MHz).

RFID UHF bandwidth in North America ranges from 902 to 928 MHz, with readers able to transmit at maximum power (1 watt ERP) for most of that bandwidth. Australia has allotted the 920 to 926 MHz range for UHF RFID technology. And European transmission channels are restricted to a maximum of 200 kHz in bandwidth, versus 500 kHz in North America. China has approved bandwidth in the 840.25 to 844.75 MHz and 920.25 to 924.75 MHz ranges for UHF tags and interrogators used in that country. Until recently, Japan did not allow any UHF spectrum for RFID, but it is looking to open up the 960 MHz area. Many other devices use the UHF spectrum, so it will take years for all governments to agree on a single UHF band for RFID.

RFID Technology in Schools

Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology uses electromagnetic fields to wirelessly transfer data. This technology involves the use of RFID cards and readers to transmit electronic information. OPP IOT’s RFID system helps track the movement of children in schools & verifies if students are getting off at the right bus stop. It also helps automate attendance. RFID has brought about great advancement to the security industry and offers an effective method to enhance safety of premises. Most offices have been using RFID technology for a while. Now, schools are also reaping the benefits of this technology.

Benefits of the Northstar’s RFID technology for Schools:
Movement of students inside the school can be tracked if RFID readers are installed in labs, halls, classrooms etc.
RFID student tracking system in buses helps schools track whether a student is getting off at the right stop.
The RFID student tracking system generates a message to the parent’s phone informing them that their child has boarded the bus/reached the school.
RFID in schools can be used to automate attendance and save time as teachers don’t have to take attendance manually.
OPP IOT RFID Tracking System can also be extended to drivers, wherein, the driver will have to swipe in at the start of the trip and at the end. The driver is asked to check if there is still any child left on the bus while swiping out. This prevents sleeping kids from being trapped in the bus due to a driver’s negligence.
This RFID tracking system can be used to generate attendance reports.
Active RFID tracking system can help easily the movement of several students and is better placed in school entrances to keep track of everyone entering & exiting the school.
RFID cards can also be given to guests entering the school to keep track of their movements while they are on campus.

Printed & Custom RFID Tags

Are you planning to use RFID as part of an event? Or to let the public access services at your venue? Does your project need a tag over-printed with your logos, your web-site or a telephone number? Perhaps it needs to carry some project specific branding? Maybe you need a completely customised housing for a tag? Perhaps your tags need to have data added to them before they can be used?

We have worked with a range of projects needing printed tags or customised tags, delivering just what the customer needed, on time and to a pre-agreed cost.

Who uses custom tags?
Some of our clients for over-printed and custom tags have included primary care trusts, universities, marketing and advertising agencies, event management companies and museums.

Applications for over-printed and customised RFID tags include loyalty schemes, safety applications, research programmes, product promotions and corporate branding. Everything in fact from music festivals to theme parks, from health spas to exhibitions and customer hospitality events. Customised tags supplied by us have been used for events ranging from launching a new supercar to promoting the latest range of multi-player interactive games, through to public health initiatives and helping thrill seekers record their experiences with a personalised video.

What can be done?
We can arrange over-printing, custom tag colours, data encoding, adding printed id numbers to tags, and even complete new physical housings for tags. Here are just some examples of work we have done for clients.

How do I know which frequency is right for my application?

Different frequencies have different characteristics that make them more useful for different applications.

For instance, low-frequency tags use less power and are better able to penetrate non-metallic substances. They are ideal for scanning objects with high-water content, such as fruit, but their read range is limited to less than a foot (0.33 meter). High-frequency tags work better on objects made of metal and can work around goods with high water content. They have a maximum read range of about three feet (1 meter).

UHF frequencies typically offer better range and can transfer data faster than low- and high-frequencies. But they use more power and are less likely to pass through materials. And because they tend to be more “directed,” they require a clear path between the tag and reader. UHF tags might be better for scanning boxes of goods as they pass through a dock door into a warehouse. It is best to work with a knowledgeable consultant, integrator or vendor that can help you choose the right frequency for your application.